ICRMPs, HPMPs, AND OTHER PLANNING DOCUMENTS

Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plans (ICRMPs) are a standard document for the US Department of Defense (DOD). They provide procedural guidance for identifying, evaluating, nominating, and managing historic properties located on military installations. These plans ensure agencies meet stewardship responsibilities toward cultural resources in a manner that supports the military mission and minimizes conflicts with resource protection. Brockington’s extensive ICRMP experience for the DOD and our long-term relationships with military clients facilitate our understanding of mission requirements. This results in an internal programmatic approach that saves time and money in developing management plans as well as providing accurate recommendations for future compliance activities.

Brockington staff also has extensive experience developing Historic Properties Management Plans (HPMPs) for hydropower projects licensed under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). HPMPs consolidate all information about known historic properties and their long-term management within the ongoing operations of the FERC-licensed hydro project. In addition to ICRMPs and HPMPs, Brockington has produced a number of other types of planning documents, including Cultural Resources Management Plans (CRMPs), Architectural Protection Plans, and facility/building specific management plans. We also have experience creating disaster and emergency plans for cultural resources, historic sites, and facilities.

US Army Reserve Center
US Army Reserve Center

CASE STUDY PLANNING DOCUMENTS

US ARMY RESERVE ICRMPs

Brockington has completed multiple rounds of ICRMP Updates for the US Army Reserve 81st and 88th Readiness Divisions. Most recently, we prepared 29 state-specific ICRMP updates covering 305 facilities across the United States from the Southeast, Midwest, Plains, and Northwest. These documents updated the ICRMPs we prepared for the previous five-year periods. At the beginning of each task order, we worked with USAR cultural resource managers to understand where documents could be improved to facilitate management within the agencies. Our goal was to ensure the documents presented a thorough yet concise summary of actions completed at each facility, clear lists of action items for the next five years, and Standard Operating Procedures to guide future consultation efforts. In addition to developing the documents, Brockington assisted with SHPO/THPO consultation, and updated the agencies’ GIS cultural database according to current DOD Spatial Data Standards for Facilities, Infrastructure, and Environment (SDSFIE) standards.

GPR AND REMOTE SENSING

Remote sensing, acquiring information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object, has become an integral part of archaeological investigations. Brockington’s Remote Sensing Program combines GIS analyses of aerial, LiDAR, and topographic data with the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic locators or magnetometers, and metal detectors. After GPR surveys are complete, we use GPR Slice to process data and to detect patterns or anomalies not apparent during the survey.

Our team also includes RPA-certified metal detector operators with extensive experience using this equipment on a variety of historic and military sites. We also use drones to provide georeferenced photography, videography, and 3D modeling services. Drones can be used to map archaeological features and cultural landscapes (e.g., rice fields), to photograph historic architectural resources, to assist in HABS/HAER/HALS documentation and photography, or to assist in Visual Impact Assessments.

Archaeologist Scott Kitchens conducts GPR survey at Middleton Place, with the chapel and the rice mill pond in the background
Archaeologist Scott Kitchens conducts GPR survey at Middleton Place, with the chapel and the rice mill pond in the background

CASE STUDY GPR AND REMOTE SENSING

MIDDLETON PLACE GPR

The Middleton Place National Historic Landmark is a former rice plantation that thrived during the early eighteenth through nineteenth centuries. Brockington conducted a GPR survey of three areas at Middleton Place to determine if architectural features were present below the ground surface. Our investigation covered three survey blocks totaling 3,723 square meters (0.93 acre). To collect data, we used a MALÅ Ground Explorer with a 450mhz antenna and Mini Rough Terrain Cart system, plus an Emlid Reach RS2+ real time kinetic positioning (RTK) receiver for precision mapping. The data were analyzed using MALÅ Vision and GPR-Slice. Our survey revealed two architectural features south of the house museum, including what may be the foundation of a former greenhouse and an interconnected series of terrace walls and one unidentified architectural feature southwest of the stables. Subsequent archaeological testing of the greenhouse foundation confirmed the presence of English-bond linear footers dating from the eighteenth century. This work enhanced Middleton Place’s understanding of the plantation’s former built environment and allowed us to recommend specific areas where future ground disturbing activities should be avoided.

TRIBAL CONSULTATION

Brockington began its tribal consultation efforts with the proposed Eisenhower Parkway Extension highway in Macon, Georgia, a complex, nationally controversial project. From this beginning, Brockington has carried out numerous large and small consultation projects, from facilitating formal nation to nation consultations, to working with tribes collegially and informally when projects have tribal connections, to assisting with the compilation of information for groups seeking federal acknowledgement. Our long-term positive relationships with numerous tribes bring unique perspectives to our work and enrich our understanding of history and archaeology.

Catawba potter Caroleen Saunders builds a “Rebecca” pitcher based on a style developed by earlier Catawba potters
Catawba potter Caroleen Saunders builds a “Rebecca” pitcher based on a style developed by earlier Catawba potters

CASE STUDY TRIBAL CONSULTATION

VOICES OF THE SANDHILLS

Voices of the Sandhills is an acclaimed multimedia presentation of the history and archaeology of the North Carolina Sandhills region, especially the history of the Native Americans who see the Fort Liberty area as their ancestral homelands. The presentation features interviews with representatives from the Catawba Indian Nation, the Tuscarora Indian Nation, the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, and the Goins and Walden families (descendant groups associated with sites on Fort Liberty). Following initial consultations by the Fort Liberty Cultural Resources Office, Brockington staff consulted in depth with tribal and family representatives to align the program with the interests and perspectives of the tribes and the descendent communities. The maintenance of Catawba, Tuscarora, and Lumbee identity within modern society through Native programs and practices and through the archaeological and historical activities undertaken at Fort Liberty became a principal focus of the video and the web site narratives. These successful interactions highlight Brockington’s efforts to incorporate sensitive and relevant tribal concerns and our understanding of the needs and perspectives of our tribal partners.

COLLECTIONS MANAGEMENT AND NAGPRA

Collections management is a core function for museums and facilities. Brockington provides a suite of collections management services, including initial processing, cleaning, cataloging, packaging, conservation treatment, rehabilitation, accessioning, assessment, and recordkeeping. We also create collection management plans and collection storage plans. We have two full-service labs, one in Atlanta and one in Charleston, with full-time professional staff, state of the art equipment, and secure, climate-controlled storage.

We also frequently work on-site or create temporary labs when collections cannot be relocated. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) calls for careful and specialized treatment and disposition of Native American human remains and funerary objects, objects of cultural patrimony, or other sacred objects. We regularly work with collections to identify NAGPRA-related materials to help museums, facilities, and agencies meet their responsibilities for these materials according to the federal statute.

Brockington Lab Director Jeff Sherard and Lab Technician Grant Sherwood work with the Lake Altus Collection in the Museum of the Great Plains
Brockington Lab Director Jeff Sherard and Lab Technician Grant Sherwood work with the Lake Altus Collection in the Museum of the Great Plains

CASE STUDY COLLECTIONS MANAGEMENT AND NAGPRA

MUSEUM OF THE GREAT PLAINS

The Museum of the Great Plains housed assemblages of illegal collections made from the 1960s to 2015 in Bureau of Reclamation project areas in southwestern Oklahoma. Brockington completed a NAGPRA and unassociated cultural and natural history material inventory and a collections rehabilitation for these assemblages. We inventoried 30,845 cultural and natural objects during this project, recorded 6,225 measurements from 2,075 individual projectile points, and rehabilitated the collection into 184 archival boxes. Finally, Brockington entered all inventory data into the ReDiscovery’s Interior Collections Management System (ICMS) database. Throughout this endeavor, we regularly consulted with Kirikirʔi:s (Wichita and Affiliated Tribes) members. Our consultation helped to develop best practices for future NAGPRA and inventory efforts. This consultation also reframed the collection from its origins in unethical collecting activities to a demonstration of the Wichita’s unique contributions to the human material cultural record. This collaborative spirit also carried through with our relationship with Reclamation. By maintaining regular and consistent communication, an innovative Collection Guide was allowed to develop along with careful project execution, Brockington completed this ambitious project on an accelerated timeline.

CEMETERY SERVICES

Cemeteries pose unique challenges for landowners and managers. Our staff has the experience and skills to ensure that cemeteries are handled with the utmost respect while complying with state and local laws and preservation ordinances. We understand that cemeteries are highly sensitive and often generate considerable public interest. When our clients encounter human burials, we guide them through every aspect of a project, from fieldwork to public meetings to relocation and re-interment.

Archaeologist Dave Baluha uses a MALÅ Ground Explorer to survey Evergreen Cemetery
Archaeologist Dave Baluha uses a MALÅ Ground Explorer to survey Evergreen Cemetery

CASE STUDY CEMETERY SERVICES

EVERGREEN CEMETERY

Evergreen Cemetery is an African American cemetery in Savannah, Georgia. As part of an effort to bring Evergreen Cemetery to the same level of care and maintenance of its other five cemeteries, the City of Savannah Cemeteries Division hired Brockington to conduct an archaeological assessment of the cemetery. Our investigations included documenting and mapping graves and cemetery features, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of selected areas, and preparation of a geodatabase and technical report. In total, we identified 6,122 graves, dating from 1902 to 2023. Thirteen graves, dating from 1902 to 1953, were probably relocated to Evergreen Cemetery from another unknown burial site. As a result of these investigations, Brockington identified areas across the cemetery totaling 14,581 m2 (3.6 acres) that should have no constraints for use as future burial plots.

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